TURKEY’S ENERGY PROFILE AND STRATEGY

Turkey has the highest rate of growing energy demand among OECD countries over the last 15 years.

 

Turkey’s energy import dependency, mainly on oil and natural gas, is increasing due to this growing energy demand. Currently, Turkey is able to meet only around 26 % of its total energy demand from its own domestic resources.

The main elements of our energy strategy can be summarized as follows:

1) Taking into account increasing energy demand and import dependency, prioritization among energy supply security related activities;

2) Within the context of sustainable development, giving due consideration to environmental concerns all along the energy chain;

3) Increasing efficiency and productivity, establishing transparent and competitive market conditions through reform and liberalization;

4) Augmenting Research and Development on energy Technologies.

Through application of these four basic principles, we aim for the following goals;

1) Diversification of routes and sources for imported oil and natural gas;

2) Increasing the ratio of local and renewable energy in our energy mix;

3) Increasing energy efficiency;

4) Adding nuclear to our energy mix.

Data on Turkey’s energy production, consumption and installed capacity can be accessed through the following web sites:

http://www.enerji.gov.tr/en-US/Mainpage- Info Bank

http://www.enerji.gov.tr/en-US/Pages/Electricity

http://www.enerji.gov.tr/en-US/Pages/Petrol

http://www.enerji.gov.tr/en-US/Pages/Natural-Gas

http://www.enerji.gov.tr/en-US/Pages/Coal

Enrichment of the National Energy Mix

Turkey continues its efforts to increase the share of renewable energy sources in and add the nuclear power to its energy mix for the purpose of reducing its energy import dependency, maximizing the use of domestic resources, and combating climate change.

Renewable Energy

As an indication of the importance given to renewable energy, Turkey became a founding member of International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), on 26 January 2009, through an agreement signed at the conclusion of a conference organized for this purpose in Bonn.

Information related to Turkey’s renewable energy potential can be accessed through the following web sites:

http://www.enerji.gov.tr/en-US/Pages/Hydraulics

http://www.enerji.gov.tr/en-US/Pages/Wind

http://www.enerji.gov.tr/en-US/Pages/Solar

http://www.enerji.gov.tr/en-US/Pages/Geothermal

http://www.enerji.gov.tr/en-US/Pages/Bio-Fuels

Nuclear Energy

Turkey decided to add nuclear power into its energy mix with the aim of decreasing negative environmental effects of energy production; of meeting its ever increasing energy demand as well as reducing its energy import dependency. To this end, construction of two nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Akkuyu and Sinop are underway.

Akkuyu and Sinop NPPs are Generation III+ plants to be designed and equipped with the most advanced safety systems. Their safety measures are in accordance with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards.

Detailed information regarding Turkey’s nuclear energy policy can be accessed through the following web site:

http://www.enerji.gov.tr/en-US/Pages/Nuclear

TURKEY’S ROLE IN THE REGIONAL ENERGY TRADE

Turkey is geographically located between energy producing countries of the Region with more than 75% of the world’s proven oil and gas reserves and the well-developed European energy consumer markets. This privileged natural bridge position provides Turkey with both opportunities and responsibilities in term of energy security. Turkey remains convinced of the need to strengthen this unique role given by its geostrategic location. In this regard, while developing its energy strategy Turkey aims to strengthen its position between East-West and South-North Energy Corridors.

The “East-West” gas pipeline projects which are envisaged to bring gas from Caspian and the Middle East regions to Europe through Turkey are referred as “Southern Gas Corridor” (SGC). South Caucasus Pipeline (SCP), Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum Natural Gas Pipeline (BTE), Turkey-Greece Interconnector (ITG) are existing pipelines while the Trans-Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline (TANAP) and the Trans-Adriatic-Pipeline (TAP) are planned projects within the context of Southern Gas Corridor. The delivery of gas to Turkey through TANAP will start in mid-2018 and to Europe in 2020.

OIL AND NATURAL GAS PIPELINES / PROJECTS

A. CRUDE OIL PIPELINES

i. Kirkuk-Yumurtalık Crude Oil Pipeline (Iraq-Turkey Crude Oil Pipeline)

ii. Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Crude Oil Pipeline (BTC)

Detailed information about oil and natural gas pipelines and projects can be accessed through the following website:

http://www.enerji. gov .tr/en-US/ Pages /Transit-Pipelines-and-Projects

B. NATURAL GAS PIPELINES AND PROJECTS

a. CURRENT PIPELINES

i. Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum Natural Gas Pipeline (BTE)

ii. Turkey-Greece Interconnector (ITG)

iii. Western Route (Russia-Turkey Natural Gas Pipeline)

iv. Blue Stream Natural Gas Pipeline

v. Iran – Turkey Natural Gas Pipeline

b. NATURAL GAS PIPELINE PROJECTS

i. Trans-Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline Project (TANAP)

ii. TurkStream Project

Detailed information about natural gas pipelines and projects can be accessed through the following website:

http://www.enerji.gov.tr/en-US/Pages/Natural-Gas-Pipelines-and-Projects

OIL TRANSPORTATION THROUGH TURKISH STRAITS

Turkish Straits play a distinctive role in terms of energy supply security since 3% of the global oil consumption passes through the Straits.

Considering the busy traffic as well as the physical structure of the Straits; a maritime accident to be caused by oil tankers carrying hazardous material constitutes a huge risk. An accident in the Straits can cause not only a humanitarian and environmental disaster but also a disruption in the global oil supply. Alternative oil export options that by-pass the Straits should therefore be developed.

 



One of the biggest maritime disasters occured in Bosphorus in 1994 - M/T Nassia and M/V Ship Broker accident.

TURKEY-EU ENERGY RELATIONS

Energy is one of the most important subjects of Turkey-EU relations. As an indication of the importance given to regional energy cooperation, Turkey, with its indispensable position on ensuring energy security of Europe, joined the Energy Community with an observer status in 2006. (Energy Community, established in 2005, is an international organization aiming to establish an integrated and competitive energy market among EU members and non-EU South Eastern European countries as well as other neighboring countries)

Within the scope of Turkey’s accession negotiations with the EU, the screening process of the Energy Chapter was completed in 2007. Work on the update of the Report on the screening of the Energy Chapter is currently ongoing by the EU side. Turkey wishes to open the Energy Chapters as soon as possible for negotiations.

Turkey-EU High-Level Energy Dialogue was launched and its first meeting was held on 16 March 2015 in Ankara. The second High Level Energy Dialogue Meeting was held on 28 January 2016 in Istanbul.

LONG TERM AGREEMENT BETWEEN TEİAŞ AND ENTSO-E

Turkish Electricity Transmission Company (TEIAS) and the relevant boards of European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E) signed a long-term agreement on 15 April 2015 providing for the permanent physical integration of the Turkish and EU electricity markets. The integration of Turkish electricity system and market with those of Europe has hence been taken to a higher level.