Arms Control and Disarmament

Türkiye attaches particular importance to the efforts in arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation as factors that strengthen the stability. Given the threats posed by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, including their acquisition by terrorists, these efforts are critical enablers for not only regional, but also global peace and security. Türkiye hopes the international community will share the goals of disarmament and non-proliferation and collectively work towards a safer and more stable world.

Recent years have witnessed a downward trend in these areas, exemplified by the withdrawals from or suspension of some agreements and treaties. Türkiye believes that such agreements and treaties, which were agreed upon through long and painstaking diplomatic negotiations, should be fully implemented and strengthened. Türkiye also believes that this trend can only be reversed by investing more in dialogue, transparency, confidence building measures and strengthening the existing treaties and regimes.

Active participation in international efforts in arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation, adherence to relevant international instruments and their full implementation are important elements of Türkiye’s national policy in these areas. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs continues to ensure coordination among the relevant national institutions.

Conventions and Treaties

Türkiye is party to main international disarmament and non-proliferation treaties and regimes as follows;

- Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT): This landmark Treaty was opened to signature in 1968 and entered into force in 1970. Türkiye has become a party to the Treaty in 1979. NPT aims to advance the goals on three pillars which are non-proliferation, disarmament and peaceful use of nuclear energy.

Review Conferences are held every five year to review the implementation of the Treaty. The 10th Review Conference which was planned to be held in 2020 in New York is postponed to 2022 due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Türkiye will continue her efforts for universalization and strengthening of the NPT during this Conference.

- Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT): CTBT was opened to signature in 1996. Türkiye has become a party in 2000. The Treaty has not yet entered into force as the ratification by the Annex-II States is a prerequisite for its entry into force. CTBT aims to prevent modernization of existing nuclear weapons and production of new ones through banning all types of nuclear tests.

- Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC): It was opened to signature in 1993 and entered into force in 1997. Türkiye has become a party on the same year. Under CWC, production and use of chemical weapons are prohibited. Türkiye deeply condemns the use of chemical weapons anywhere, at any time, by anyone, under any circumstances. Türkiye will assume membership in the Executive Council of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons in 2022-2024 period.

- Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC): This Convention was opened to signature in 1972 and entered into force in 1975. Türkiye has become a party in 1974. Under BWC, production and use of biological and toxin weapons are prohibited.

- The Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction (Ottawa Convention): The Ottawa Convention constitutes the major international instrument aimed at eliminating the Anti-Personnel Land Mines as well as preventing their use, production, stockpiling and transfer. Türkiye has become a party to this Convention in 2004.

In accordance with the provisions of the Convention, Türkiye has the obligation to destroy its stockpiled anti-personnel landmines and to clear mined areas. The destruction of Türkiye’s stockpiled anti-personnel land mines was completed in 2011. Mine clearance efforts are ongoing.

- Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) (Protocol I, Amended Protocol II and Protocol IV): It was opened to signature in 1981 and entered into force in 1983. Türkiye has become a party in 2005. CCW prohibits the use of certain weapons that may cause inhumane injuries.

- Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (HCOC): It was established in 2002 as a transparency and confidence-building measure to contribute to efforts for preventing the proliferation of ballistic missiles capable of delivering weapons of mass destruction. Türkiye joined HCOC in 2002.

Türkiye fully implements the abovementioned Conventions and Treaties. Türkiye participates in the international meetings/conferences and regularly submits compliance reports in order to enhance transparency and confidence building.

UN-Related Areas

Türkiye has welcomed the UN Security Council Resolution 1540 on the non-proliferation of the weapons of mass destruction. Türkiye submitted national reports to the Committee (established pursuant to the UNSC Resolution 1540) in 2004, 2006, 2008, 2016, 2019 and lastly in 2020.

Türkiye strongly supports the full and comprehensive implementation of the UN Programme of Action to prevent, combat and eradicate the illicit trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW).

Conference on Disarmament (CD)

Türkiye is an active member of the Conference on Disarmament (CD) since 1996. CD is the sole multilateral negotiation forum in the field of disarmament. However, the Conference has not been able to deal with substantial issues since 1996 as a programme of work could not be adopted due to divergences among its members.

There are four substantial agenda items of discussions in the CD, namely “Nuclear Disarmament”, “Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty”, “Negative Security Assurances” and “Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space”. Türkiye supports the efforts aimed at overcoming the current stalemate and developing an agreed programme of work in the CD.

Export Control Regimes

Türkiye is also party to all below-mentioned export control regimes for conventional weapons and dual-use equipment and technologies.

- Wassenaar Arrangement (WA) aims to control exports of conventional weapons and dual-use equipment and technologies. Türkiye has been a founding member since 1996.

- Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) was established in 1987, with the aim of limiting the spread of ballistic missiles, cruise missiles and other unmanned delivery systems whose range and delivery capability are above a certain threshold. Türkiye has become a member in 1997.

- Zangger Committee (ZC) was established in 1971 to control the export of nuclear-related materials, equipment and technology. Türkiye has become a member in 1999.

- Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) was established in 1974 to control the export of nuclear-related and dual-use materials. Türkiye has become a member in 2000.

- Australia Group (AG) was established in 1985 to control the exports of dual-use materials and technologies to prevent the proliferation of chemical and biological weapons. Türkiye has become a member in 2000.


Türkiye supports and takes part in the following complementary initiatives:

- The Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI): Türkiye declared her support to the PSI launched in May 2003. The PSI builds on wider efforts by the international community to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, including through existing treaties and regimes.

- The Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT): Türkiye is pursuing an active policy against terrorism. With this understanding, Türkiye has joined, from the outset, the “Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism” (GICNT).

- The Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Initiative (NPDI): It was launched to contribute to the implementation of the consensus outcomes of the 2010 NPT Review Conference and to take forward the nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation agenda. Türkiye is part of NPDI along with 11 countries (Germany, Poland, Netherlands, Canada, Chili, Mexico, UAE, Australia, Japan, Nigeria and the Philippines).

- International Partnership for Nuclear Disarmament Verification (IPNDV): This initiative brings together more than 25 countries, including nuclear and non-nuclear weapon states, through a partnership between the U.S. Department of State and the Nuclear Threat Initiative. Türkiye is part of the Initiative. IPNDV aims to improve and implement verification mechanisms for nuclear disarmament.

- Creating an Environment for Nuclear Disarmament (CEND) Initiative: It was launched by the U.S. in 2019 in order to establish a constructive dialogue for creating an environment conducive to carry nuclear disarmament further. Nuclear weapon states, non-NPT nuclear weapon states (India, Pakistan, Israel) and 34 counties are part of the Initiative.

Türkiye has also joined/signed:

- “International Partnership Against Impunity for the Use of Chemical Weapons”, which was launched in Paris in January 2018 in an effort to fill the gap in the absence of the UN-OPCW Joint Investigative Mechanism.

- The Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) in July 2013. (National ratification procedure to ratify the Treaty is ongoing.)

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), as a flexible forum for political dialogue and negotiation, develops principles, norms and standards on three dimensions of security (politico-military, economic and environment, and human dimensions) and monitors implementation of obligations. The OSCE has 57 participating States as well as 6 Mediterranean and 5 Asian Partners for Cooperation.

OSCE has a unique position in Euro-Atlantic and Eurasian security architecture. Its comprehensive approach to the concept of security comprises political and military-related commitments and mechanisms that encourage openness, transparency and cooperation among participating States to increase security.

In this respect, the Vienna Document which includes provisions on early warning and crisis prevention constitutes one of the important instruments of confidence building measures (CBM) contributing to stability and security in the OSCE region. The Vienna Document, comprising several confidence and security building measures involving military information exchange, has been adopted in 1990 by all participating States. The Document is politically binding. The most important factors behind successful implementation of the Vienna Document to date are its adaptability to international developments and its responsiveness to new needs. The Vienna Document has been updated four times, lastly in 2011.

Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty that entered into force in 1992 is the principle international arrangement on European conventional security architecture. It determines Europe-wide and regional limits of military forces, military balance and positioning conditions.

Russian Federation suspended her obligations under the CFE in 2007 on the ground of her security concerns due to NATO expansion. The Treaty is now implemented by remaining 29 participating States.

The Open Skies Treaty (OST) is a legally binding military arrangement aiming at contributing to transparency and openness through unarmed aerial surveillance flights over the territory of its participants with aircrafts equipped with special detectors. The Treaty acts as a complementary instrument of inspection within several disarmament and arms control arrangements in Europe. The U.S. withdrew from the Treaty in 2020 and the Russian Federation withdrew from the Treaty in December 2021. Currently, 32 countries are party to the Open Skies Treaty.

(For more information on OSCE please visit: Foreign Policy > International Organisations > OSCE)